Mobbing is a part, unfortunately, our terminology in the workplace, just as in school we talk about bullying. While the latter refers to bullying (pupils or students in school) and often transcends the border of bullying to physical abuse.
But in reality what is bullying? It is indeed a type of psychological violence in the workplace. If we look at DRAE at its twenty-third edition, provides a definition of moral or psychological harassment as follows: “practice in personal relationships, especially in the workplace, consisting of a degrading treatment and dismissive to a person in order to destabilize it mentally. ”
Mobbing is a term first used by Professor Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989), Nobel Prize for medicine in 1973, along with two other scientists Nikolaas Tinbergen and Karl R. von Frisch. It not only gave us his research on the geese and the imprint of the birds that followed him confused with his father. He also used this term to describe a pattern of aggression that was intended to expel a congener, considered intruder in a given territory.
Imagine the ecological context of the office, shop or factory and the group more or less reduced violent behavior in this case psychology, which seeks to remove or delete the individual not admitted to the group.
Once back into the workplace, a couple of decades, a German psychologist, Heynz Leymann investigated this behavior in the work that revolutionized labor laws in the Scandinavian countries and Germany. In his experience during 20 years indicated that bullying exists when one or more of 45 hostile attitudes described by him are repeated at least once a week for at least six months. We’ll talk about all these hostile attitudes, but before it must make a differential diagnosis of mobbing.
First with stress, which we recognize as the psycho-physical symptoms resulting from a perceived higher demands or demands that we think we can meet. In second place with Burn out syndrome “burnt out”, we must recognize it as a situation suffered by an individual after being subjected to heavy demands of their environment and as a result ends in depersonalization or lack of enthusiasm or vision of future employment and psychophysically concerning him.
I must also say that bullying is not a situation of conflict, the conflict is bilateral, mobbing is intended by a stalker / a with a victim, it is unilateral.
In both situations, stress and burn out, there is a duality: a climate or environment and an individual’s response. In the mobbing is a victim and one or more aggressors or bullies, they can be group or individual, peers, subordinates or bosses fundamentally. In the mobbing is an intention on the part of bullies or stalkers: annular, humiliate and kill his victim. Sometimes the reasons, if this type of behavior needs to be based on reasons, is nothing more than envy, low self-esteem or control misunderstood by the stalker / a.
How to identify the mobbing? 45 Leymann described hostile attitudes that allow us to identify the mobbing, to be given at least a week and for a period of six months. Data obtained after 300 cases analyzed:
Attitudes of harassment related to communication:
1. The boss does not allow to express the victim.
2. He repeatedly interrupted when speaking.
3. The guys will not let him speak.
4. His teammates yell, we recriminating.
5. Criticize the work of the victim’s verbal attacks.
6. Criticize his personal life.
7. They terrorize the victim with phone calls.
8. Threaten him verbally.
9. Threaten him in writing.
10. Avoid eye contact, gestures of contempt.
11. Ignore their presence, exclusively from others.
Activities to prevent harassment victims have the possibility to maintain social contacts:
12. No talk
13. Do not let him talk or is proceeding to another.
14. Designate a job that will go away and isolated from his peers.
15. Prohibit direct his teammates call him.
16. Denying the physical presence of the victim.
Activities of harassment aimed at discrediting or prevent the victim to keep your personal or business reputation:
17. Murmur or slander.
18. Casting rumors about the victim.
19. Ridicule or laugh at it.
20. Trying to look like a mental patient.
21. Try to undergo a psychiatric examination.
22. Making fun of their illnesses or disabilities.
23. Ways mimic the voice, the gestures of the victim to ridicule
24. Criticizing their political convictions or religious beliefs
25. Making fun of his private life.
26. Laughing at their origins, their nationality.
27. Give humiliating work.
28. Control and monitor the work of the victim in a malicious manner.
29. Challenging and overrule the decisions of the victim.
30. Injury with obscene or degrading terms.
31. Molesting the victim (gestures or propositions)
Activities aimed at reducing harassment of the victim’s occupation and employability by bringing discredit professional:
32. Do not trust any task
33. Deprive him of all vocations, and monitor you can not find any
34. Require wholly unreasonable or unnecessary tasks
35. Give tasks well below their skills
36. Constantly give new tasks
37. Make him do humiliating jobs
38. Give tasks far above their competence, in order to prove their incompetence
Harassment activities affecting the physical or mental health of the victim:
39. Require hazardous or detrimental to their health
40. Physically threatened
41. Physically assaulting, but not seriously, as a warning
42. Physically assaulting
43. Costs cause the victim to harm
44. Cause damage to your home or your job
45. Sexually assaulting the victim
From these behaviors we have indicated in bold the most frequently obtained in the study Cisneros VI.
We know what the mobbing, how to recognize and how to document it.
We need now to know how to prevent it or how to cope.
How do I prevent it? It is mostly like any process of abuse or harassment. It has an evolution that we must be well tuned. For example, we notice a change in the relationship we have with colleagues, with a partner or with your boss / a.
Sometimes they question your work, using lies, ridiculizándote no apparent reason or notes left to talk to you with the same frequency as before. Reach more and they threaten your job communicating this to the address of the workplace, mix or introduce aspects of your character or personality. You can start to feel bad emotionally.
If this happens to you, seek help and support family, friends, union representatives, professional help, and so on. Try to document every action and if necessary report it to the judicial work.
It is complex to talk about victim and stalker profiles, although there are some elements that can help us identify:
The stalker / a not generally recognized their role, blames everything on his victim. Is usually close to the direction of the company and seeking their support to substantiate the harassing conduct. Usually lie, is mediocre and feels some animosity for his victim.
The victim usually has a high sense of responsibility and ethics. It is also a member of a team with whom you feel connected. Usually support their colleagues and often effective in their work. Perhaps this sense of responsibility is a fragile item to bullying by colleagues or bosses harassing / as.